Content module №3 (Olena Aleksandrova)
Theme 1. Idea of Europe at the Public Level.
- The idea of Europe and its emancipatory orientation.
This thematic block provides analysis of the meanings of the idea of Europe, which is able to serve as a guide for social development – freedom, equality, solidarity, intrinsic value of a man, democracy, supremacy of law and others. The specificity of adapting the semantic core of the idea of Europe at the macro level to the traditions of national societies seeking to achieve prosperity is investigated.
The orientation function of the idea of Europe at the micro level is to determine the personality traits of a European who subordinates his creative life to European values, rules and norms of behaviour.
It reveals the idea of Europe and modern Europe – realities and prospects and depicts the issues of implementation of the idea of Europe in the strategies of sustainable development of European countries.
- The idea of Europe as an imperative of transformations of social life with the background of globalization processes.
It analyzes the social relevance of the idea of Europe, its ability to promote the spiritual renewal and democratization of societies with a totalitarian past. Structural changes in a society, the transition from “romanticized versions of democracy” to its reflective forms is a long process of transformation of social life. The indicators of such transformations have been determined: the rule of law, democratic institutions, political culture. It highlights the ambiguous understanding of such principles of democratic development as democracy, representation and publicity. It reveals potential weaknesses that can be inherent in democratic societies. Cosmopolitanism is described as an EU alternative.
- The EU’s potential and the potential of the idea of Europe.
In this block the practice of deploying European integration processes as an embodiment of the idea of Europe is studied. In the EU, the idea of Europe fulfills orientation, selective and integrative functions. A positive consequence of the accession of countries with a socialist past to the EU is to accelerate their transformation processes.
The ambivalence of the idea of Europe in the processes of globalization is traced. On the one hand, the conceptualization of globalization needs to be deepened by explication of the ideas of Europe into it. On the other hand, the Western European mentality is exerted by such manifestations of globalization as migration and intensification of contacts with other cultures and values. In the latter case, the immunity of the idea of Europe does not always work within the limits of the value of tolerance. There is a need to distinguish between global humanism and global egalitarianism. The first recognizes the existential importance of national cultures, the second is a strategy for unifying the cultural life of mankind. Through globalization, modern European societies are becoming multicultural. The phenomenon of migrant workers has a conflicting potential.
- The idea of Europe as a factor of transformation of social life.
The peculiarities of interpretations of the idea of Europe in the Ukrainian philosophical tradition, which developed in the core of European philosophy, are analyzed in this block. Beginning with the philosophy of Kyivan Rus, it forms a complex of values, in line with the idea of Europe. The historical prerequisites for the formation and content of the national idea are outlined. The orientation to the constituent elements of the idea of Europe, taking into account the specific Ukrainian contexts, is inherent to H. Skovoroda, who demanded a critical understanding of the realities of European life and warned against the temptations of a superficial perception of the idea of Europe. Ukrainian thinkers organically fit into the community of Western European philosophers precisely because they were carriers, translators and co-authors of new meanings of the idea of Europe. The explication of the humanistic meanings of the idea of Europe is regarded as a benchmark for the constitution of a new democratic social reality in Ukraine.
The idea of Europe, by updating the principle of subsidiarity and the principle of freedom, is able to act as a driving force for democratic transformations. The experience of the Orange Revolution and the Dignity Revolution testifies to this. The European idea of freedom and justice has given impetus to building democracy and civil society in Ukraine. These social movements helped to activate the social-transforming potential of the idea of Europe. Justice as a component of the European idea, the unity of morality and law lay a powerful impetus for the further development of the idea of Europe.
Theme 2. Idea of Europe at the International Level.
- The idea of Europe vs Eurasian idea.
In this thematic block common and distinctive features of European and Eurasian ideas are revealed, as well as common and distinctive features of European and Eurasian integration. By means of comparative and institutional-political analysis conceptual foundations, methods of integration, degree of dynamism, sovereignty of member states, socio-economic factor, institutional foundations, legal framework, political system, inter-parliamentary structure are revealed within the topic.
The idea of uniting European originated in the distant past. Since XI century the idea of Europe as a single unity began to appear. In XIV century European projects are emerging – the unification plans for Europe based on the treaty. The idea of united Europe has repeatedly emerged from European politicians (the United States of Europe, PanEurope, the European House, etc.), but it was only embodied in the second half of ХХ century.
The main objectives of the EU’s activities are considered: promoting peace; support for freedom, security and justice; ensuring sustainable development; combating social exclusion and discrimination; promoting scientific and technological progress; strengthening economic, social and territorial unity; respect to multiculturalism and linguistic diversity. The values of the EU (human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law, human rights) are common for member states in a society dominated by integration, tolerance, justice, solidarity and non-discrimination. Such values are an integral part of the European way of life.
Analysis of epistemological foundations of Eurasian doctrine and theoretical and cognitive potential of basic Eurasian categories (“Russia-Eurasia”, “place development”, symphonic personality, etc.) makes it possible to distinguish qualitatively Eurasian scientific rationality from the traditional European rationality.
The analysis of current issues of the contemporary existence of European and Eurasian ideas will allow to form the prospects for further development and interaction of countries that embrace these ideas.
2. Pan-European movement via the electoral trends on the continent.
It reveals the formation of the European Parliament, its structure and functions. Council of the European Union, powers and features of quantitative structure. The European Commission and its impact on integration processes. The scheme of EU decision-making.
Comparative analysis of electoral systems in the leading European countries.
Pro-European forces and Eurosceptics in the EU. Center-right and Eurocentrists in the European Parliament. Possibilities for using the experience of European advanced technologies in implementation of the idea of Europe in Ukrainian practice and in Ukrainian realities of social and political life.
- Cultural diplomacy and trans-boundary dialogue: EU and around it.
A system for indexation and monitoring cross-border cooperation on the new Eastern border of the European Union. Topical aspects of regulatory support for cross-border cooperation in Ukraine. Tools for regional promotion of Ukraine’s European integration: Transcarpathia in EU Neighbourhood Programs. Visa liberalization by the European Union is a prerequisite for effective cross-border cooperation. The economic sphere is basic in cross-border cooperation. Conceptual bases of harmonization of national legislation with the mechanism of international legal regulation of cross-border relations.
Self-governance and monitoring of interethnic relations in border regions. Traditions, present situation and prospects of multilateral cross-border cooperation in the Eurocarpathian region. The place and role of Transcarpathia in this process. Monitoring of synergetic aspects of reality in the process of forming a model of innovative development of cross-border regions. Economic component of cross-border cooperation. Formation of a system of cross-border cooperation. Ethno-political aspect of instability.
Special legal regimes for economic activity in the EU border regions of Ukraine: Opportunities for cooperation with the EU. Development of cross-border EU in the context of globalization.
- Subsiding EU neighbours – supporting the Idea of Europe?
In this thematic block the peculiarities of the life-sustaining activities of the welfare society and the deficit society are considered. Poverty diminishes the objective possibilities for the realization of human dignity in the dimensions of positive freedom. European standards of quality of life set the direction for a set of reforms in societies that have not reached the level of the welfare society. Embodiment of the principles of competition and individualism, thrift and culture of life are the ways of realization of the guidelines and values of the idea of Europe. Achieving these standards requires a change in mentality, outlook, attitudes towards correcting the economic, political and cultural behaviour of the population of countries that have embarked on the path of European integration.
Theme 3. Idea of Europe at the State Level.
- The State capacity-building in Europe.
The growth of the country’s potential in Europe is linked to the development of a welfare state. The welfare states that have historically developed in Europe are heterogeneous. They correspond to some extent to the four main types of political and economic regimes. It is customary to divide social states into the following types:
Social-democratic welfare state (Denmark, Sweden, Finland) is characterized by the maximum level of social paternalism of the state and the minimum social responsibility of a person, has a high level of redistribution of profits on the grounds of:
– equal social security for all citizens;
– full employment policy;
– high level of taxes and assistance – low level of poverty.
A conservative or corporate welfare state (Austria, the Benelux countries, France and Germany) is characterized by a peculiar even distribution of responsibility for the share of citizens between the state and the individual. The state acts as a guarantor of social security, but it is carried out by the citizens themselves through various insurance mechanisms (funds) at their own expense, there is a rational level of redistribution of income, the state system has the following features:
– the level of social security depends on the personal contribution of citizens to insurance funds;
– the level of taxes and assistance is moderate.
Therefore, the state did not assume the basic social responsibility, given that the market copes with it on its own.
A liberal or restricted welfare state (Ireland, United Kingdom, USA) is characterized by placing maximum responsibility on the citizens themselves, and the state provides only a certain, minimum level of social support. High level of redistribution of profits and state system are distinguished by:
– providing a minimum level of social guarantees for a large part of the population;
– relatively high employment rate;
– high level of taxes.
Southern European, Catholic, or Latin welfare state (Spain, Italy, Portugal, Greece, Latin America), in which the degree of state responsibility for a person’s destiny is as low as that of liberal, and the necessary assistance for people is based on the principles of Christian morality and is obtained from close ones – family and relatives, community, local authorities and, last but not least, from the state. This model can be defined as a transitional, developing one. It does not blend well with current trends in individualization in social culture.
The enhancement of the potential of the European state is closely linked to the development of the components of the European welfare model. They are: education, health care, retirement, social assistance and more.
- Avoiding consumerism in state policy towards the EU integration.
In this thematic block the features of European self-identification of Ukraine, the expectations of Ukrainian society from the rapprochement of Ukraine with the EU are analyzed. The basis for mythologizing the idea of Europe is being researched. Europe for Ukrainians is first and foremost a symbol of prosperity, not a landmark of self-improvement. This is facilitated by the fragmented perception of the realities of European social life by different types of migrants (e.g. tourists, students, guest workers, expats) who have different levels of adaptation to Western European realities. They are excluded from the process of creation of modern Europe on the territory of Ukraine and focused on their own plans of self-realization in European socio-cultural contexts. Europe as an ideal and Europe as a reality create hybrid forms in the minds of Ukrainian society and conceal the danger of social myth-making with a European metaphor that hides the processes of stagnation and the threat of refeudalisation of social relations.
- Maturity of the State: to adopt supranational and to save national.
It presents a contemporary perspective on the problems of the supranational (global) and national. The national does not exhaust its potential, but on the contrary, it helps the achievements of individual nations to become the common good of mankind.
The activities of modern actors of globalization and their impact on the policies of EU national governments are analyzed.
On the other hand, the secessionism in Europe is studied, its origins and consequences for the realization of the idea of Europe and preservation of integrity of the European Union.